Katharine Kolcaba - Theory of Comfort

Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental).


The Comfort Line: A Web Site Devoted to the Concept of COMFORT in Nursing


Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Fashinpaur, D. (2007). Comparison of a healing touch, coaching, and a combined intervention on comfort and stress in younger college students. Holistic Nursing Practice21(4), 194-202.

Kolcaba, K. (1992). Gerontological nursing: The concept of comfort in an environmental framework. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 18(6), 33-38.

Kolcaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome. Advances in Nursing Science, 15(1), 1-10.

Kolcaba, K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.

Kolcaba, K. (1995). The art of comfort care. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27(4), 287-289.

Kolcaba, K. (2001). Evolution of the mid range theory of comfort for outcomes research. Nursing Outlook, 49(2), 86-92.

Kolcaba, K. (2003). Comfort theory and practice: A vision for holistic health care. Springer.

Kolcaba, K. (2004). Comfort. In S. J. Peterson & T. S. Bredow (Eds.), Middle range theories: Application to nursing research (pp. 255-273). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M. A. (2005). Comfort theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing, 31(3), 187-194.

Kolcaba, K., & Fisher, E. M. (1996). A holistic perspective on comfort care as an advance directive. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 18(4), 66-76.

Kolcaba, K., & Fox, C. (1999). The effects of guided imagery on comfort of women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Oncology Nursing Forum, 26(1), 67-72

Kolcaba, K., & Kolcaba, R. J. (1991). An analysis of the concept of comfort. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16(11), 1301-1310.

Kolcaba, K., & Steiner, R. (2000). Empirical evidence for the nature of holistic comfort. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 18(1), 46-62.

Kolcaba, K., Tilton, C, & Drouin, C. (2006). Comfort theory: A unifying framework to enhance the practice environment. Journal of Nursing Administration, 36(11), 538-544.

Novak, B., Kolcaba, K., Steiner, R., & Dowd, T. (2001). Measuring comfort in caregivers and patients during late end-of-life care. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 18(3), 170-180.

Seyedfatemi, N., Rafii, F., Rezaei, M., & Kolcaba, K. (2014). Comfort and hope in the preanesthesia stage in patients undergoing surgery. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing29(3), 213-220. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.05.018

Vendlinski, S., & Kolcaba, K. (1997). Comfort care: A framework for hospice nursing. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 14(6), 271-276.