Nola J. Pender - Health Promotion Model

This model is a heuristic device that encourages scholars to look integratively at variables that have been shown to impact health behavior. The HPM synthesizes research findings from nursing, psychology and public health into an explanatory model of health behavior that still must undergo further testing. Multiple variable models are needed to explain human health behavior. The various health promotion strategies and tools that Dr. Pender have developed and presented in the three editions of Health Promotion in Nursing Practice as well as the undergirding HPM model can be used as a basis for structuring nursing protocols and interventions. Nurses in practice should focus on understanding and addressing variables that are most predictive of given health behaviors. (Extracts taken from: Nola J. Pender Website/FAQ).


Murdaugh, C. L., & Parson, M. A. (2002). Health promotion in nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Pender, N. J. (1975). A conceptual model for preventive health behavior. Nursing Outlook, 23(6), 385-390.

Pender, N. J. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Pender, N. J., Baukas, V. H., Hayman, L., Rice, V. H., & Anderson, E. T. (1992). Health promotion and disease prevention: Toward excellence in nursing practice and education. Nursing Outlook, 40(3), 106-112, 120.

Pender, N. J., & Pender, A. R. (1986). Attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to engage in health behaviors. Nursing Research, 35(1), 15-18.

Pender, N. J., Walker, S. N., Stromborg, M. F., & Sechrist, K. R. (1990). Predicting health promoting lifestyles in the workplace. Nursing Research, 39(6), 326-332.

Ratner, P. A., Buttorff, J. L., Johnson, J. C., & Hayduk, L. A. (1994). The interaction effects of gender within the health promotion model. Research in Nursing and Health, 17(5), 341-350.

Srof, B. J., & Velsor-Friedrich, B. (2006). Health promotion in adolescents: A review of Pender's Health Promotion model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(4), 366-373.

Tillett, L. A. (1998). Nola J. Pender: The health promotion model. In A. M. Tomey & M. R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (4th ed., pp. 529-537). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Walker, S. N., Sechrist, K. R., & Pender, N. J. (1987). The health-promoting lifestyle profile: Development and psychometric characteristics. Nursing Research, 36(2), 76-80.

Nola J. Pender -- Faculty page at University of Michigan School of Nursing