Roper, Logan & Tierney - Elements of Nursing

The Elements of Nursing: A Model for Nursing Based on a Model of Living

This model incorporates a life span approach, wherein the characteristics of the person are considered with respect to prior development, current level of development, and likely future development (Safarino, 1990). In conjunction with the life span approach an independence/dependence continuum is used. The model then incorporates a set of twelve activities of living (AL's), which represent those activities engaged in by individuals whether sick or well. Together these elements are referred to as "a model of living". When using the model of living in conjunction with the nursing process a model of nursing is utilised.

Twelve Activities of Living (AL's)

  1. Maintaining a safe environment
  2. Breathing
  3. Communicating
  4. Mobilizing
  5. Eating and drinking
  6. Eliminating
  7. Personal cleansing and dressing
  8. Maintaining body temperature
  9. Working and playing
  10. Sleeping
  11. Expressing sexuality
  12. Dying

Aggleton, P., & Chalmers. H. (1985, February 13-19). Models and theories: Roper's activities of daily living model. Nursing Times, 81(7), 59-61.

Bellman, L. M. (1996). Changing nursing practice through reflection on the Roper, Logan, and Tierney model. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(1), 129-138.

Punton, S. (1983, March 2-8). A model for nursing developed by Roper...activities of living. Nursing Times, 7(9), 24-27.

Punton. S. (1983, March 2-8). The struggle for independence: How the Roper model of patient care was put into practice at Burford. Nursing Times 79(9), 29-32.

Rhodes, K. (1990, May 23-29). Parkinson's disease: Using the Roper model. Nursing Times, 86(21), 36-39.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, May 25). A nursing model...why the nursing process is useful, when used in an explicit nursing framework. Nursing Mirror, 156(21), 17-19.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 1). Is there a danger of "processing" patients? Nursing Mirror, 156(22), 32-33.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 8). Problems or needs?...the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(23), 43-44.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A., (1983, June 15). Identifying the goals...the importance of assessment and evaluation in the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(24), 22-23.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 22). Endless paperwork?...the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(25), 34-35.

Roper, N. Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1983, June 29). Unity-with diversity...use of the nursing process. Nursing Mirror, 156(26), 35.

Roper, N., Logan, W., & Tierney, A. (1996). The Roper-Logan-Tierney Model: A model in nursing practice. In P. H. Walker (Ed.), Blueprint for use of nursing models: Education, research, practice, and administration (pp. 289-314). New York: National League for Nursing.

Tierney, A. (1998). Nursing models: Extant or extinct? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(1), 77-85.

Tomey, A. M. (1998). The Elements of Nursing: A model for nursing based on a model of living. In A. M. Tomey & M. R. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorist and their work 4th ed., pp. 321-332). St. Louis: Mosby.